Array download

An array is a collection of data elements of same data type. It is described by a single name and each element of an array is referenced by using array name and its subscript no.

Declaration of Array

Type arrayName[numberOfElements];

For example,
int Age[5] ;
float cost[30];

array c++

Initialization of One Dimensional Array

An array can be initialized along with declaration. For array initialization it is required to place the elements separated by commas enclosed within braces.
int A[5] = {11,2,23,4,15};
It is possible to leave the array size open. The compiler will count the array size.
int B[] = {6,7,8,9,15,12};

Referring to Array Elements

In any point of a program in which an array is visible, we can access the value of any of its elements individually as if it was a normal variable, thus being able to both read and modify its value. The format is as simple as:
name[index]

Examples:
cout<<age[4];      //print an array element
age[4]=55;         // assign value to an array element
cin>>age[4];       //input element 4

Using Loop to input an Array from user

int age [10], i ;
for (i=0 ; i<10; i++)
{
  cin>>age[i];
}

Arrays as Parameters

At some moment we may need to pass an array to a function as a parameter. In C++ it is not possible to pass a complete block of memory by value as a parameter to a function, but we are allowed to pass its address.
For example, the following function: 
void print(int A[])
accepts a parameter of type "array of int" called A.
In order to pass to this function an array declared as:
int arr[20];
we need to write a call like this:
print(arr);


Here is a complete example: 

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
void print(int A[], int length)
{
  for (int n=0; n<length; n++)
    cout << A[n] << " ";
  cout << "\n";
}

int main ()
{
  int arr[] = {5, 10, 15};
  print(arr,3);
  return 0;
}

Basic Operation On One Dimensional Array

Function to traverse the array A

void display(int A[], int n)
{
       cout<<"The elements of the array are:\n";
       for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
              cout<<A[i];
}

Function to Read elements of the array A

void Input(int A[], int n)
{
      cout<<"Enter the elements:";
      for(int i=0;i<n;i++)
            cin>>A[i];
}

Function to Search for an element from A by Linear Search

void lsearch(int A[], int n, int data)
{
      int i;
      for(i=0; i<n; i++)
      {
            if(A[i]==data)
            {
                  cout<<"Data Found at : "<<i;
                  return;
            }
      }
      cout<<"Data Not Found in the array"<<endl;
}

Function to Search for an element from Array A by Binary Search

int BsearchAsc(int A[], int n, int data)
{
       int Mid,Lbound=0,Ubound=n-1,Found=0;
       while((Lbound<=Ubound) && !(Found))
       {
              Mid=(Lbound+Ubound)/2;        //Searching The Item
              if(data>A[Mid])
                     Lbound=Mid+1;
              else if(data<A[Mid])
                     Ubound=Mid-1;
              else
                     Found++;
       }
       if(Found)
              return(Mid+1);        //returning 1ocation, if present
       else
              return(-1);        //returning -1,if not present
}

Function to Sort the array A by Bubble Sort

void BSort(int A[], int n)
{
    int I,J,Temp;
    for(I=0;I<n-1;I++) //sorting
   {
       for(J=0;J<(n-1-I);J++)
            if(A[J]>A[J+1])
           {
               Temp=A[J]; //swapping
               A[J]=A[J+1];
               A[J+1]=Temp;
           }
    }
}

Function to Sort the array ARR by Insertion Sort

void ISort(int A[], int n)
{
       int I,J,Temp;
       for(I=1;I<n;I++) //sorting
       {
           Temp=A[I];
           J=I-1;
           while((Temp<A[J]) && (J>=0))
           {
               A[J+1]=A[J];
               J--;
           }
           A[J+1]=Temp;
       }
}

Function to Sort the array by Selection Sort

void SSort(int A[], int n)
{
    int I,J,Temp,Small;
    for(I=0;I<n-1;I++)
    {
         Small=I;
         for(J=I+1;J<n;J++) //finding the smallest element
         if(A[J]<A[Small])
              Small=J;
         if(Small!=I)
        {
            Temp=A[I]; //Swapping
            A[I]=A[Small];
            A[Small]=Temp;
        }
     }
}

Function to merge A and B arrays of lenghts N and M

void Merge(int A[], int B[], int C[], int N, int M, int &K)
{
      int I=0, J=0;
      K=0;             //Initialisation of counters for A, B, and C
      while (I<N && J<M)
      {
            if (A[I]<B[J])
                  C[K++]=A[I++];
            else if (A[I]>B[J])
                  C[K++]=B[J++];
            else
            {
                  C[K++]=A[I++];
                  J++;
            }
      }
      for (int T=I;T<N;T++)
            C[K++]=A[T];
      for (T=J;T<M;T++)
            C[K++]=B[T];
}